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Jure Sanguinis Eligibility
Frequently Asked Questions

  • 1) What is Italian citizenship by descent?
    Italian citizenship by descent, also known as jure sanguinis is a legal process that allows individuals with Italian ancestry to obtain Italian citizenship. As long as your ancestor was an Italian resident by 1861 (when Italy was founded) there isn’t a restriction on how many generations you can go back. However, this date changes for the northern east territories (Friuli Venezia Giulia and Trentino Alto Agide) to 1920.
  • 2) What does ‘Jure Sanguinis’ mean?
    "Jure sanguinis" is a Latin term that means "by right of blood." In legal contexts, it refers to the principle of acquiring citizenship based on having one or more descendants who are citizens of the nation, as opposed to citizenship by birthplace (Jure Soli) or other means. This principle is commonly used in many countries, especially in Europe, to grant citizenship to individuals with parents or sometimes even more distant ancestors from that country
  • 3) Who is eligible for Italian citizenship by descent?
    According to Italian Law 91 of February 5, 1992, Italian citizenship is conferred by bloodline. If you are an Italian citizen’s descendant, you may already be an Italian citizen, and you will need to get your citizenship recognized by the Italian government. Nevertheless, there are some exceptions that you need to look at before starting your process of recognition. To be eligible for Italian citizenship by descent, you must meet the following requirements: Prove your Italian ancestry – This can be done by providing birth certificates, marriage certificates, and other official documents that show your lineage. Your Italian ancestor must have never renounced their Italian citizenship. This means doing so in front of an Italian authority (if your ancestor naturalized, they have indeed lost Italian citizenship; but not because of a renouncement, but because the Italian law did not allow dual citizenship until 1992. You must not be a citizen of a country that does not allow dual citizenship.
  • 4) Does my ancestor being born out of wedlock matter?
    Yes. You must show the father acknowledged the child’s birth as their child. Additional documents may be required depending on your consulate or comune.
  • 5) Is my spouse entitled to Italian citizenship as well?
    Your spouse may be entitled to Italian citizenship, but this depends on several factors, including the principle of "Jure Matrimoni," which refers to acquiring citizenship through marriage. If you married your wife before 1983, she can automatically apply for her recognition with you (her spouse). Italy requires spouses of Italian citizens to meet certain conditions. One such condition is proficiency in the Italian language, typically verified through a B1-level language test.
  • 6) What are the benefits of obtaining Italian citizenship?
    There are many benefits to obtaining Italian citizenship by descent[/why-italian-citizenship-matters]. The right to live, work, and study in Italy and other countries in the European Union. Access to free or low-cost healthcare, education, and other public services. The right to vote and participate in Italian politics. The ability to travel with an Italian passport, which offers visa-free travel to many countries.
  • 7) What is the process for applying for Italian citizenship by descent?
    The application process for Italian citizenship by descent can be complex and time-consuming. It is important to gather all of the required documentation and to follow the instructions carefully. The application process typically involves the following steps: Research your ancestral lineage to determine your eligibility. Determine the names, places, and dates that are relevant to your case using the consulate or comune guidelines. Gather the required documentation. This may include birth certificates, marriage certificates, naturalization records, and other official documents. Notarize and apostille the documentation according to the guidelines where you will apply.* Have the documentation translated into Italian.** Submit the documentation to the Italian consulate, embassy, comune or court.*** After submitting your documents, the Italian authorities will verify your documents and your qualifications. It’s vital to remember that the timing of a case is dependent on a variety of factors and the communication between the Italian comune offices and the consulates. No matter where you apply, at least one consulate and one comune are always involved. * Only select documents need a notary. ** Depending on where you apply, translations may need additional certification. *** There are multiple paths you might need to choose from, however, making it a bit more complex: Italian Consulate, Italian Courts (1948 cases), or establishing residency in Italy. Once you choose a path, follow the procedures outlined by the comune, court, or consulate to submit your application.
  • 8) What are the fees and expenses involved in the Italian citizenship application process?
    The cost of applying for Italian citizenship can vary depending on several factors, including the type of application, the documents required, the country where the application is made, and the pathway you choose. Here is a list of potential fees that may be involved in the Italian citizenship application process: Document fees – Collecting birth, marriage, and death records from vital records offices typically carry a fee for each document. Legal and/or notary fees – If the documents have inconsistencies, such as misspelled names or incorrect birth dates, amendments may be necessary. Furthermore, there are some unavoidable state or federal-level obstacles such as New York State’s policy for obtaining birth records of a deceased ancestor, for example. Apostille fees – this is a requirement for non-Italian documents in accordance with Hauge Convention countries. Translation fees – depending on where you apply, you willmight need translations of non-Italian documents. When applying in Italy through residency or through the courts, an extra layer of certification is required. Courier fees – for sending and receiving documents safely and securely. Application fee(s) – for submission of the application itself.
  • 9) How to budget and plan for the expenses?
    It is important to research and understand the fees and expenses involved in the Italian citizenship application process to budget and plan for the expenses. This can involve researching the specific requirements and fees associated with your case and seeking advice from a legal professional or immigration expert.
  • 10) Can my minor child apply with me?
    Yes, until 18, your minor children can apply at the same time as you, or you can submit their prepared birth certificate after your recognition.
  • 11) Where can I apply?
    You can apply either at the Italian consulate, which holds jurisdiction over your area, or in Italy after obtaining residency. If you are a 1948 case, an attorney will file on your behalf in the regional court where your last Italian-born ancestor came from.
  • 12) Should I have my documents reviewed before I submit them to the consulate or arrive in Italy?
    Absolutely! Consulates and Comuni are becoming more particular about the documents presented; all names and birth dates must be corrected.
  • 13) What if the consulate or comune won’t review my documents before I arrive?
    You can request a document review from ICC[/jure-sanguinis-document-preparation-bettina-holm-services] before your consulate or comune appointment.
  • 14) How do I find the contact information for a comune?
    Google. Seriously – all comuni have websites with their contact information.
  • 15) What if the comune doesn’t respond to my request for documents?
    This is typical. We recommend sending your email in Italian via a PEC email to the comune or consulate PEC.
  • 16) What is a “PEC” email?
    "PEC" email stands for "Posta Elettronica Certificata," which translates to "Certified Electronic Mail." This system is unique to Italy and is used for secure and legal electronic communication. A PEC email serves as a legal equivalent of registered mail with a return receipt. For Jure Sanguinis purposes, when you send a PEC email, you receive a legal certification of the sending and delivery times. This makes it a reliable way to request or send official documents where legal proof of sending and receipt might be required. This system is widely used in Italy for communications between citizens, businesses, and public administrations.
  • 17) How do I know the age limit of documents?
    Check the date of issuance. Many comuni impose a 6 -12 month age limit on documents that are amendable. Amendable is interpreted differently by each comune and each employee, it is recommended to verify with the comune you will apply with to ensure you arrive in Italy prepared with the required documents.
  • 18) Can I apply with my adult children?
    It depends. Consulates require each person over 18 to schedule their own appointment, but they will allow you to reference a family member's documents if they have applied in the same consulate. If your adult children live in different consulate jurisdictions, they must have their own set of documents to present at their appointment. If you are applying in Italy, you and your children (adults or minors) may apply together.
  • 19) Do other family members need their own set of documents?
    This also depends. Your file can be referenced if your family applies at the same consulate or comune. If they apply at a different consulate or comune, they will need to supply certified copies properly prepared back to the LIRA following the guidelines of the application office.
  • 20) What discrepancies need to be fixed or amended?
    Recently, more comuni and consulates have been requiring all discrepancies to be corrected either through amendments, court orders, or OATS (One-And-The-Same) judgments.
  • 21) How can I find temporary housing that meets the requirements of the comune?
    Italian Citizenship Concierge arranges housing for their clients applying in Italy. If you apply in Italy with our Apply in Italy: Essentials or Apply in Italy: Concierge services, ICC will find housing for you with the assistance of real estate professionals in Italy before you arrive in Italy. No worries here, your Italian home will be ready and waiting when you land. If you are DIY, Idealista, immobiliare, Facebook Marketplace, and networking are the best options.
  • 22) Why is Italian Citizenship Concierge the best choice?
    We have been through this process ourselves, so we know all the potential pitfalls and how to avoid them. Our goal is to make sure you avoid costly mistakes that can happen during this often stressful process.
  • 23) What is the cost of your services?
    On the document preparation side of things, our services are by the number of generations of documents required to prove your Italian citizenship. We offer a free initial consultation and detailed proposal for our services before any money changes hands. Our goal is to help you complete the process in the fastest, most cost-effective, enjoyable, way possible.
  • 24) In which comune can I apply for Italian Citizenship?
    With over 8000 comuni in Italy, technically, you could apply to any of them. We are partial to Sicily because we have made it our home. We personally work with several comuni that are ready to welcome you as their next Italian citizen. Keep in mind that not all comuni are prepared to accept new Italian citizens for a variety of reasons, such as not wanting the extra work or not having enough experience in working with Jure Sanguinis cases. It is important to work with a company that knows the comune expectations and process and has experience working with the comune.
  • 25) What documents do you need to claim your Italian Citizenship by descent?
    Vital record certificates (birth, marriage, death certificates) proving your relationship to your Italian ancestors. As well as Naturalization status paperwork. The eligibility assessment we offer is grounded on the consistency of the information contained in those certificates. Any discrepancies within names, dates, and places of birth may be an issue for the Italian authorities; we will advise you on how to make the necessary corrections so that the process runs more smoothly.* * Each Italian consulate, Italian court, and comune has its own list of required documents. If you are DIY, it is important to check with the comune you will live and apply in. With ICC, you will know what the comuni expect from documents.
  • 26) I’ve heard it can take up to a year to get recognized in Italy. How long will it really take?
    It can take up to a year IF you don’t have access to the right resources and/or arrive in Italy unprepared. We have established connections with welcoming comuni who are ready to welcome you. We will ensure that you have all the documentation you need before you arrive and guide you every step of the way on what needs to be done.
  • 27) Can I work while I reside in Italy for my citizenship?
    Unfortunately (or fortunately, depending on how you look at it!) there is a process to be allowed to work while you wait for your citizenship to be recognized, in our experience that process takes longer than your recognition. (See Decree 130/2020. Once you are a citizen you can work, go to school, move around the EU, access healthcare, and travel to and from Italy any time you please. Think of it as an extended vacation and enjoy a respite from “real life” while you are in Italy.
  • 28) Can I leave Italy after getting residency but before being recognized?
    Yes, but there are limitations and best practices to consider. We recommend speaking with the comune official or your service provider for more information and how to do this.
  • 29) Can my minor child apply with me?
    Yes. Until 18 years of age, your minor children can apply at the same time as you, or you can submit their prepared birth certificate after your recognition.
  • 30) There is an adoption in my line; how will this affect me, and what documents do I need to provide?
    If any ancestor has been adopted, it is no different than as if they were a biological parent, so long as their adoption birth certificate is presented. If you are looking to use biological parents in the case of an adoption, however, it becomes more cumbersome and might necessitate the help of a document specialist.
  • 31) Who should apply in Italy?
    Applicants who are ready to begin living la Dolce Vita!
  • 32) Who should not apply in Italy?
    If you’re not sure that living in Italy is right for you at this time because of personal or professional commitments, applying in Italy may not be the best choice. Recognition is going to require a large time commitment of living in Italy for around six months. This means during that time, you’re going to be establishing residency, and you’re going to be attending a series of appointments. Italian life is fantastic, but if you have professional or personal responsibilities back at home, applying in Italy may not be the best option for you and may actually create more stress than just waiting for an appointment at a consulate.
  • 33) If I have allergies or dietary restrictions, will it be hard to live in Italy
    Italy is a very food-centric culture, so it can be challenging for people with allergies or dietary restrictions to live there. However, there are a few things you can do to make it easier: Learn some basic Italian food vocabulary – This will help you to communicate your allergies and dietary restrictions to restaurant staff and grocery store clerks. Cook at home more often – This will give you more control over what ingredients you use in your food. Shop at specialty food stores – There are many specialty food stores in Italy that sell products that are suitable for people with allergies and dietary restrictions.
  • 34) How much walking should I expect?
    Italy is a very walkable country. Many cities and towns have historic centers that are closed to traffic, so you will need to walk to get around. However, there are also public transportation options available, such as buses and trains.
  • 35) Will my cell phone work in Italy?
    Your cell phone will most likely work in Italy, but you may need to check with your carrier to see if they have roaming agreements with Italian carriers. You will also want to make sure that your phone is unlocked. You may also want to consider purchasing a local SIM card, which will give you better cell phone service and data speeds at a fraction of the cost of similar US carrier plans.
  • 36) What are the WiFi speeds like?
    The wifi connection strength in Italy varies depending on the region, province, and even comune. In general, the WiFi connection strength is strong, with towns offering fiber optic and 5g service. Also, there are many public places in Italy that offer free WiFi, such as cafes, restaurants, libraries, and even public areas like parks and town squares!
  • 37) How much is WiFi?
    The price of wifi varies depending on the provider. However, you can typically expect to pay around 25€ per month for an unlimited data package at favorable speeds.
  • 38) How much is cell service?
    The price of cell service varies depending on the provider. However, you can typically expect to pay around €25 per month for cell service with 100GB or unlimited data.
  • 39) What should I pack?
    Clothing: Pack comfortable clothing that is suitable for all types of weather. Toiletries: Pack your essential toiletries, such as shampoo, conditioner, toothpaste, and deodorant. Household: Pack any household items that you will need, such as towels, bed sheets, and a pillow. Electronics: Pack any electronics that you will need, such as a laptop, cell phone, and camera. Banking: Pack your credit cards and debit cards. You may also want to consider opening an Italian bank account after residency is established.
  • 40) What About Transportation?
    Driving license: If you plan on driving in Italy, you will need to have a valid international driver's license. This is $20 at your local AAA and allows you to drive for one year after taking residency. Planes: There are many international flights to Italy. You can fly into major cities such as Rome, Milan, and Florence. High-Speed Trains: The high-speed train system in Italy (Frecciarossa, Frecciargento, Frecciabianca, Intercity, Intercity Notte, and regional trains) is very efficient. You can travel to all major cities and towns by train. Automobiles: You can rent a car in Italy. However, be aware that the roads in Italy can be narrow and winding. Manual transmissions are the norm, automatics are available but limited and considerably more expensive. Buying: You can buy a car in Italy after residency is established. However, the process can be complex and time-consuming. Renting A Car Short Term vs Long Term: You can rent a car in Italy on a short-term or long-term basis. Buses: There are many bus companies that operate in Italy. You can travel to all major cities and towns by bus. Ride-sharing app / Taxi: Ride-sharing and taxis are available in major Italian cities. However, they can be expensive and limited. Private Drivers: You can hire a private driver in Italy. This is a good option if you want to travel to multiple cities. When you choose Apply in Italy: Essentials or Apply in Italy: Concierge, we connect you with our trusted drivers.

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